Quantum Entanglement: How the Chinese Teleported a Proton
Hello, I’m Ewan. Today I’m doing something very different to what, not only I do on BTM, but what all of BTM usually does. Last time I did something like this, it went very well, that was the Political blogs. But today I’m talking about Theoretical Physics. A.K.A: SCIENCE!!!! Now, I’m no Albert Einstein. But I can hopefully explain to you a few very interesting things from the world of Physics. Today is less theoretical as the Chinese have actually gone and done it! Now, you may be worried 'how will I understand this? I don’t know complex maths, quantum physics or complex molecular structures!' Well don’t worry (as much) this is theoretical physics. So to understand it, it’s much less about Math but much more about thought experiments. Anyway, I’m 13, and I’m showing this to you so it mustn’t be that complex! It has been revealed that the Chinese have successfully teleported a proton (part of an atom) from the ground to a satellite 480 miles above the surface of the Earth, but how? This will explain the Quantum Entanglement part of Quantum Mechanics, the well known Schrodinger’s Cat and how this Proton was teleported. First we need to understand a thing about protons; they have exactly a 50% chance of spinning down or up. For the purpose of understanding better, say it’s a cat instead of a proton, spinning up (Head is up) or down (Head is down) instead of the complicated way that protons “Spin”. Quantum Entanglement states that two cats (Really Protons) can be completely linked. So if we put the two cats in a box, then look at one, it’s spinning up, then we automatically know that the other is spinning down. No matter how far you put the two cats (Protons) apart, they will forever be linked to do this. If you think this was complicated, wait until the next part: Quantum Superposition. Now, put the two cats in two different boxes, so you don’t know which one is which, you have no way of knowing which one is which until you look at one of them. Quantum Mechanics state that when you are not looking at the cats, one could be the other. Basically until you look inside one of the boxes, the universe doesn’t actually decide which one is which, so both cats are in superposition, both spinning up and down at the same time! That is Schrodinger’s Cat, both dead and alive, spinning up and down. But wait, we’re not done yet! Now to explain Quantum Teleportation! Make sure to remember that inside all Protons is quantum information that the very pinnacle of imaginative scientists calls qu-bits. This information is what makes every proton unique in its own way, so back to what happens. So, let’s get Proton A into the lab in say London, and Proton B onto the satellite, both of which entangled with each other. We then get another Proton, we’ll call Proton Z. So, we measure the comparison between Protons A and Z, dropping the superposition between Protons A and B. Suddenly all the qu-bits in Proton Z, are all now on Proton B, making Proton B effectively what Proton Z used to be. Proton Z is destroyed in the process due to Quantum Physics’ No Cloning Therom, which is effectively Teleportation like in Star Trek. This happens instantly, why? We have no idea, Quantum Physics is a world of Whys that we have no answer to. Was this confusing? If not then you must be either Stephen Hawking or Brian Cox. If you didn’t get any of it, try again.... maybe? Or, just give up. Maybe you gave up ages ago and are trying to see if there’s any funny remark at the end. If so... then there is none, sorry. If you ended up getting anything I talked about, then my job here is done! I’ve been a 13 year old trying to explain quantum physics, goodbye.
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